• The catalytic converter, is the element of the exhaust system that accelerate the chemical reactions that enable a drastic reduction in the polluting gases (CO, HC and NOx), turning them into non-polluting gases (CO2, H2O and N2 ). 
  • Gasoline catalytic converters are also called three way catalytic converters due to the fact that these units are able to transform three polluting gases (CO, HC and NOx).
  • The catalysts are in fact a set of precious metals placed inside the housing: platinum, rhodium and palladium.
  • The catalytic converter, is the element of the exhaust system that accelerate the chemical reactions that enable a drastic reduction in the polluting gases (CO, HC and NOx), turning them into non-polluting gases (CO2, H2O and N2 ). 
  • Gasoline catalytic converters are also called three way catalytic converters due to the fact that these units are able to transform three polluting gases (CO, HC and NOx).
  • The catalysts are in fact a set of precious metals placed inside the housing: platinum, rhodium and palladium.
Lambda sensor, also known as lambda probe or oxygen sensor, has the important function of informing the electronic control unit(ECU) of the vehicle about the oxygen level of the mixture present in the exhaust gases. This information is processed by the ECU in order to calculate and set up in the engine the best air to fuel mixture for each driving situation.
Lambda sensor downstream catalytic converter, has the function of informing the electronic control unit (ECU) of the vehicle about the oxygen level of the mixture present in the exhaust gases downstream catalytic converter. Due to the fact that catalytic converter need oxygen to perform its oxidizing reactions, the ECU knows at all moment the status of those reactions by measuring the difference of the oxygen level upstream and downstream the catalytic converter. In case that the oxygen level downstream the catalytic converter is abnormally high, the ECU will detect it and will turn on the malfunction indicator light at the dashboard, storing the digital trouble code P0420.
Monroe® Strut-Mate protection kits
  • Monroe® Protection Kits (PK) are essential for the correct operation of the suspension system. Protection Kits are made up of two essential parts, the compression bumper made in high density polyurethane foam and the rod dust shield.
  • Compression bumper, has the important task of limiting roll, dive and squad oscillations (that take place at lower piston speed) which are caused when the vehicle travels around a sharp bends, braking or acelerating. These important element protects shock absorber from being damage when subject to strong impacts due to road obstacles.
The spring has several important functions for the vehicle:
  • Carries the weight of the vehicle.
  • Maintains the right height of the vehicle with respect to the road.
  • Absorbs and isolates the vehicle from uneven surfaces.
The spring has several important functions for the vehicle:
  • Carries the weight of the vehicle.
  • Maintains the right height of the vehicle with respect to the road.
  • Absorbs and isolates the vehicle from uneven surfaces.
The exhaust manifold, is attached to engine with a gasket and plays the important role of collecting the exhaust gases from all the cylinders with the minimum energy loss, in order to canalize them through the rest of emission control units.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) - Description and function:
  • It is designed to store, and periodically burn, carbon solid particles contained in lean mixture engine exhaust gases, transforming them into CO2.
  • DPF basic design is composed of two main parts: the catalytic converter (also called DOC) and the particle filter made of silicon carbide (SiC) or Cordierite material.
  • The oxidation process of the carbon particles stored at the filter is called "regeneration" generally take place in two ways: through continuous regeneration, for temperatures between 270°C and 450°C, performed by NO2 gases or through oxidation reactions, by O2 for temperatures over 450°C.
  • The useful life of DPF units in passenger cars and light commercial vehicles oscillates between 100,000 km in the early models to 240,000 km in the more modern ones.
Lambda sensor, also known as lambda probe or oxygen sensor, has the function of informing the electronic control unit (ECU) of the vehicle about the oxygen level of the mixture present in the exhaust gases. This information is processed by the ECU in order to calculate and set up in the engine the best air to fuel mixture for each driving situation.
The DOC (Diesel Oxi Catalyst) its a two way catalytic converter, that means that is able to perform two chemical reactions at the same time; transforms carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) into carbon dioxide (CO2) and Water (H2O). This reactions take place in lean mixture environments (with presence of oxygen) thanks to Platinum or Palladium metals present at the wash-coat of the monolith.
DOC reactions are exothermal, that means that those reactions generate heat. This heat is used during the regeneration process to burn the solid carbon particles trapped at the DPF into carbon dioxide (CO2) which is a gas. After the regeneration process the filter is again clean and ready to store particles again.
DPF Filter, is the core of the system. These element has the task of retaining the solid particles travelling with the exhaust gases in order to burn them later on thanks to the regeneration process. DPF filters are mainly manufactured in two types of materials:
  • Silicon carbide filters (SiC): All original equipment manufacturers (with few exceptions) use silicone carbide filters to build their DPF.
  • Melting point around 2650°C superb performance to withstand regeneration processes.
Silicone carbide filters are recommended for:
  • Vehicles equipped with high performance engines or top segment cars.
  • Vehicles that circulate most of the time in heavy traffic conditions.
  • Vehicles that stay running in idle or low speed for long periods of time (like taxis in cold or warm weather areas). 
  • Vehicles that run in areas with low temperatures (under 0°C) more than two months per year.
  • Old vehicles, that due to the natural engine wear requires better filters.
  • Cordierite filters are made of an Aluminium magnesium silicate compound used also at catalytic converter monoliths. 
  • Melting point around 1400°C.
Cordierite filters are recommended for:
  • All the vehicles equipped at OE with Cordierite DPF cores.
  • Well serviced low - middle segment cars, that change the DPF by the first time at the right service time (after 120.000 km).
  • Vehicles that circulate most of the time in low traffic conditions (like highways or inter-city driving).
  • Vehicles that rarely stay running in idle or low speed for long periods of time.
The temperature sensor, has the important task of informing the electronic control unit of the vehicle if the temperature of the gases upstream DPF are at the right level to start the regeneration process when required.
SCR SYSTEM
  • SCR technology is designed to allow nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction reactions to take place in an oxidizing atmosphere. It is called "selective" because it reduces levels of NOx using ammonia as a reductant within a catalyst system. The reducing agent reacts with NOx to convert the pollutants into nitrogen, water and tiny amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) - natural elements common to the air we breathe everyday. The reductant source is usually automotive-grade urea, otherwise known as Diesel Exhaust fluid, which can be rapidly hydrolyzed to produce the oxidizing ammonia in the exhaust stream. SCR technology alone can achieve NOx reductions in excess of 90%.
The SCR injector, is placed just after the DPF, upstream the SCR mixer. It has the important role of injecting the reductant agent into the exhaust system at the right proportion, in order to ensure a good performance of the SCR reactions.
The SCR Mixer Ring, is placed downstream the SCR injector, and have the important role of ensuring a homogeneous mixing of the exhaust gases and the reductant agent prior to enter into the SCR catalyst unit.
The NOx Sensor, placed upstream the SCR catalyst, has the task of informing the electronic control unit (ECU) of the vehicle about the level of NOx gases upstream the SCR catalyst. With this information together with the information received from other sensors, as temperture sensor and revolutions of the vehicle, the ECU will calculate the right amount of reductat agent, that will be injected into the exhaust gases upstream the SCR, to ensure the right performance of the SCR unit.
The temperature sensor, has the important task of informing the electronic control unit of the temperature upstream the SCR, in order to correctly calculate the amount of reductant agent that should be injected into the system, to ensure a good performance of the SCR unit.
The Selective Catalytic Converter (SCR) unit, is made of a ceramic core which is coated with some metals as Silver, vanadium, or some others depending on the models and use.
NOx Sensor downtream the SCR catalyst, this sensor has the task of informing the electronic control unit (ECU)of the vehicle about the level of NOx gases exiting the SCR catalyst. With this information the ECU will determine if the SCR catalyst is working properly, being able to adjust the amount of reductant injected in the system. In case that ECU detects an abnormal NOx value, a MIL light will be activated at the dashboard.
Rear silencer, this element has the important task of reducing the noise levels to values legally stablished. At the same time its design will maintain the right level of back-pressure in the exhaust system, giving as a result optimum levels of performance and consumption.
Rear silencer, this element has the important task of reducing the noise levels to values legally stablished. At the same time its design will maintain the right level of back-pressure in the exhaust system, giving as a result optimum levels of performance and consumption.
Monroe® Strut-Mate mounting kits
  • Monroe® MK top mounting kits are designed to partially absorb the vibrations caused by uneven road surfaces thanks to its rubber bumper and enhance the turning of the drive wheels when the steering wheel acts over the system.
  • Monroe® MK top mounting kits generally come in 2 parts with important, different functions. The first part is a flexible rubber bumper, which absorbs the vibrations caused by tyre contact with the uneven surface. These vibrations are transmitted from the tyres to the steering wheel through the suspension strut. This rubber stop is subject to several wear and tear factors which ends after some time damaging it (temperature, continuous vibrations, dirt, etc.) Those factors limit its flexibility and consistency, making it hard and fragile. As this part ages, uncomfortable vibration occurs in the steering wheel, often mistaken for problems in wheel balance. This situation negatively affects the grip and vehicle control, and increases the risk of having an accident.
Monroe® Strut-Mate mounting kits
  • Monroe® MK top mounting kits are designed to partially absorb the vibrations caused by uneven road surfaces thanks to its rubber bumper and enhance the turning of the drive wheels when the steering wheel acts over the system.
  • Monroe® MK top mounting kits generally come in 2 parts with important, different functions. The first part is a flexible rubber bumper, which absorbs the vibrations caused by tyre contact with the uneven surface. These vibrations are transmitted from the tyres to the steering wheel through the suspension strut. This rubber stop is subject to several wear and tear factors which ends after some time damaging it (temperature, continuous vibrations, dirt, etc.) Those factors limit its flexibility and consistency, making it hard and fragile. As this part ages, uncomfortable vibration occurs in the steering wheel, often mistaken for problems in wheel balance. This situation negatively affects the grip and vehicle control, and increases the risk of having an accident.
Monroe® Strut-Mate protection kits
  • The Monroe® PK protection kits are essential for the correct operation of the suspension system. They are made up of two essential parts, the compression bumper made in high density polyurethane foam, and the rod dust shield is made of rubber.
  • The compression bumper has the important task of limiting vertical oscillations (roll, dive and squat) that take place at lower piston speed. These oscilations are caused when the vehicle travels around a sharp bend or during acceleration and braking. Poliurethane bumber avoids shock absorber damage when subject to strong road impacts due to holes or uneven road surfaces.
The spring, is a key element with several important functions for the vehicle:
  • Carries the weight of the vehicle.
  • Maintains the correct height of the vehicle with respect to the road.
  • Absorbs and isolates the vehicle from uneven surfaces.
The spring, is a key element with several important functions for the vehicle:
  • Carries the weight of the vehicle.
  • Maintains the correct height of the vehicle with respect to the road.
  • Absorbs and isolates the vehicle from uneven surfaces.
This type of ball joint is attached to the rack steering to join the ends of the rack with the steering arms. In this manner they become the perfect complement to the ball joints attached to the steering knuckle, allowing the vehicle wheels all types of upward and downward movement.
They are called "axial" because they are mounted in the same direction as the steering rack rod, as if they were an extension of it.
This is a cylindrical bar made of high tensile steel and bent ends forming arms. Its torsional rigidity is proportional to its diameter, total length and the length of the arms. It is mounted in a transversal position to the vehicle, and is joined to it in the centre of the bottom of the chassis by means of screwed flanges, which have silent blocks or elastic bearings inside which absorb the movements and vibrations of the bar itself. This is attached on the ends to the track control arm by means of elastic bearings, silent blocks or tie rods. The ends can also be attached to the shock absorber by means of tie rods with ball joints. When the vehicle turns, the chassis gets lower on the outer side, and gets closer to the wheel, so that this arm of the stabilizer rod turns upwards. On the other hand, the chassis gets higher on the inner side of the curve, moving away from the inner wheels, so that the arm of the stabilizer rod turns downwards.
This action produces a torsion torque on the stabilizer rod which is always opposite to the lateral inclination of the chassis. In this manner, it tends to keep the chassis in a horizontal position, improving the stability of the vehicle.
These components are jointed suspension components that join the steering knuckle of the wheels to the chassis. They consist of solid rods of iron or embossed or patterned steel sheet metal whose shape varies depending on the design of the manufacturer (also called trapezoid).
The attachment to the chassis is by means of elastic bearings and by means of ball joints to the steering knuckle. They support the elastic components of the suspension, so that they must be resistant enough to withstand the forces generated by them while driving the vehicle.
The steering box is responsible for transferring the turning movement from the steering wheel to the steered wheels. It consists of a container housing, commonly made in light alloy and, thanks to the mechanism located inside, it transforms the turning movement received from the steering shaft, into the movement of the arms or levers that move the wheels in the desired direction. It has the necessary flanges in the engine compartment for attaching it to the vehicle chassis, and its shape and design depend on the type of mechanism inside (Pitman arm or Rack & pinion) and the type of vehicle.
Rack & Pinion, is the most widely used mechanism in automobiles due to its easy installation and simplicity. It consists of a gear with helical teeth (pinion) attached to the steering shaft, which meshes permanently with a straight rod with teeth (rack).
The ends of this rack are directly connected by axial rods to the tie rods, which are directly connected to the steering knuckles by ball joints.
The rotation of the steering wheel is transmitted to the pinion which moves the steering rack rod axially to the left or right, depending on the rotational direction of the pinion and therefore the wheel, pushing the coupling rods and guiding the wheels in the desired direction.
These components allow the connection and attachment of the suspension components to the chassis of the vehicle. These consist of a hollow sleeve of elastic material, which is housed inside a metallic sleeve, or a screw clamp, with the connection to the chassis by means of screws.
This type of bushing is used to attach components such as the track control arms, tie rods, stabiliser rods, etc. to the frame in order to absorb the movements and vibrations of the suspension so that these are not transmitted to the chassis.
The steering shaft is a jointed metal bar that joins the steering box mechanism on one end and the steering wheel on the other end.
In many cases, it is possible to adjust the steering wheel position to the height and length that the driver wants. The mechanism can be locked in the desired position by means of a lever next to it on the dashboard.
The steering shaft joints generally use cardan joints, as well as the commonly used telescopic spindles in the final section of the steering shaft. These allow the modification of the angles and the necessary interconnections between the steering wheel and the steering box. These joints are also designed for passive safety features and allow programmed deformation for accident scenarios with the intention of moving the steering wheel away from the driving position in case of a frontal crash.
The most common programmed deformation systems are:
  • Retractable steering shaft with jointed axles
    In the case of a strong frontal impact, the shaft with jointed axles is collapsible thanks to the joints which connect each section, in many cases avoiding the injuries that the displacement of the steering wheel toward the vehicle driver could cause.
  • Retractable steering shaft with sliding axles
    In this type of steering shaft, when a frontal impact occurs, the lower axle of the steering shaft slides under the upper axle of the steering shaft, which, to a large extent, avoids the steering wheel being pushed towards the chest of the driver.
  • Retractable steering shaft connected by wire mesh
    In this model the two sections of the steering axle are joined by a connection consisting of a cylinder of compressible wire mesh. In case of frontal impact, the wire mesh cylinder compresses, absorbing the movement of the lower axle and preventing the steering wheel from moving towards the driver.
In rack systems, which are most commonly used systems in the automotive industry, at the ends of the steering box there are steering rack gaiters, also known as steering boots or bellows, which prevent the entry of dirt or water into the steering mechanism, while preserving the integrity of the components and the lubrication – usually grease in non-assisted power steering – because of their sealing function.
When the steering mechanism is operated, the gaiters length increases and decreases, which causes a variation in the internal volume of air that it contains. For this reason, the system must have a means of allowing the entry and exit of this volume of air. Two methods are usually employed:
  • By means of a small hole on the bellows.
  • By means of the connection between the chambers formed by the two bellows, so that the reduction of pressure in one of them compensates for the increase in the other by passing the air through the connecting hose. The hose can be externally mounted on the bellows, or internally connected through the steering box.
The steering knuckles are the connection between the steering system components, the suspension components, and the steered wheels of the vehicle. The bearing bushing that is connected directly to the wheel is located inside the steering knuckle, allowing it to rotate freely with respect to the steering knuckle.
They are made in one piece of steel or alloys and are highly resistant. The design is determined by the joints of the structure and all the components that are involved in the stability and manoeuvrability of the vehicle, with particular attention paid to the connection of the tie rods, so that it meets the Ackermann principle.
In vehicles that use MacPherson suspension, these have the purpose of attaching the chassis to the steering knuckle-wheel set-up, which transmits the entire weight of the vehicle. Since the wheels have to be able to rotate from one side to the other, the use of some type of joint between the chassis and strut connected to steering knuckle attachment is required. This is the purpose of the Top strut bearings.
This type of bearing is installed on the upper part of the strut piston rod, so that when the wheels move from one side to the other, they allow full rotation of the strut with respect to its anchor on the chassis.
The bearing is part of the upper mounting kit (MKs), along with a strut rubber bushing that absorbs ground vibrations at the same time that it ensures that the wheels have the best contact with the ground.
This type of ball joint is attached to the rack steering to join the ends of the rack with the steering arms. In this manner they become the perfect complement to the ball joints attached to the steering knuckle, allowing the vehicle wheels all types of upward and downward movement.
They are called “axial” because they are mounted in the same direction as the steering rack rod, as if they were an extension of it.
These are the connecting component between the steering knuckles and the track control arms or tie rods that are attached to the chassis. They absorb the movements and vibrations that are produced between them when the wheels move upwards or downwards due to the uneven ground. These may be integrated into the track control arms or attached to them by means of screwed joints.
The composition is similar to the steering ball joints but more robust, due to the load they bear, which the shock absorbers put on them due to the weight of the chassis.
According to the position that the suspension ball joints have with respect to the applied load (chassis weight), these can be classified as follows:
Non load carying ball joints. These are placed in such a way that never support the weight of the vehicle.
Load carrying ball joints. They work in compression and support the weight of the chassis.
Unloaded ball joints. They work in a radial direction with their only purpose being the attachment of the steering knuckle to the chassis.
On a vehicle a anti-roll bar also called as sway bar or stabilizer bar, prevents the car body from leaning too much and keeps the vehicle stable when driving in turns. A sway bar is connected via rubber bushings to the car body or frame in the middle (see anti-roll bar). Outer ends of the anti-roll bar are connected to the parts of the vehicle suspension that holds the wheel (struts or control arms). The part that connects the outer ends of the anti-roll bar to the suspension component is called a sway bar link, stabilizer link or anti-roll bar link. In most cars a sway bar link has two small ball joints at each end. Over time, the sway bar link ball joints wear out. The first sign of a worn out sway bar link is a knocking noise from the suspension when driving slow over road bumps.
The steering wheel is the component that the driver operates, and its design depends on the manufacturer of the vehicle. It consists of a metal ring covered with a foam whose texture and thickness make it comfortable and pleasant to use, and also allows the driver to get a good grip, avoiding slipping while driving.
In the case of sports vehicles, the foam may be covered in leather to improve the texture. On the other hand, in some luxury vehicles the metal ring is directly covered with wood.
The steering wheel should allow a clear view of the dashboard, located behind it, from the driver’s normal position.
Nowadays, various control components and systems, such as the horn, airbag (clearly identified with the stamped “airbag” or “SRS” symbol), sound system controls, cruise control, etc., are located on the steering wheel. The size is determined by the manufacturer depending on the available space and effort that the driver must exert to operate the mechanism: the bigger the diameter the less effort. At is centre, it connects to the steering shaft by means of a worm-gear through a conical grooved hole that makes it possible to set its position.
This type of ball joint is attached to the rack steering to join the ends of the rack with the steering arms. In this manner they become the perfect complement to the ball joints attached to the steering knuckle, allowing the vehicle wheels all types of upward and downward movement.
They are called "axial" because they are mounted in the same direction as the steering rack rod, as if they were an extension of it.
This is a cylindrical bar made of high tensile steel and bent ends forming arms. Its torsional rigidity is proportional to its diameter, total length and the length of the arms. It is mounted in a transversal position to the vehicle, and is joined to it in the centre of the bottom of the chassis by means of screwed flanges, which have silent blocks or elastic bearings inside which absorb the movements and vibrations of the bar itself. This is attached on the ends to the track control arm by means of elastic bearings, silent blocks or tie rods. The ends can also be attached to the shock absorber by means of tie rods with ball joints. When the vehicle turns, the chassis gets lower on the outer side, and gets closer to the wheel, so that this arm of the stabilizer rod turns upwards. On the other hand, the chassis gets higher on the inner side of the curve, moving away from the inner wheels, so that the arm of the stabilizer rod turns downwards.
This action produces a torsion torque on the stabilizer rod which is always opposite to the lateral inclination of the chassis. In this manner, it tends to keep the chassis in a horizontal position, improving the stability of the vehicle.
These components are jointed suspension components that join the steering knuckle of the wheels to the chassis. They consist of solid rods of iron or embossed or patterned steel sheet metal whose shape varies depending on the design of the manufacturer (also called trapezoid).
The attachment to the chassis is by means of elastic bearings and by means of ball joints to the steering knuckle. They support the elastic components of the suspension, so that they must be resistant enough to withstand the forces generated by them while driving the vehicle.
The steering box is responsible for transferring the turning movement from the steering wheel to the steered wheels. It consists of a container housing, commonly made in light alloy and, thanks to the mechanism located inside, it transforms the turning movement received from the steering shaft, into the movement of the arms or levers that move the wheels in the desired direction. It has the necessary flanges in the engine compartment for attaching it to the vehicle chassis, and its shape and design depend on the type of mechanism inside (Pitman arm or Rack & pinion) and the type of vehicle.
Rack & Pinion, is the most widely used mechanism in automobiles due to its easy installation and simplicity. It consists of a gear with helical teeth (pinion) attached to the steering shaft, which meshes permanently with a straight rod with teeth (rack).
The ends of this rack are directly connected by axial rods to the tie rods, which are directly connected to the steering knuckles by ball joints.
The rotation of the steering wheel is transmitted to the pinion which moves the steering rack rod axially to the left or right, depending on the rotational direction of the pinion and therefore the wheel, pushing the coupling rods and guiding the wheels in the desired direction.
These components allow the connection and attachment of the suspension components to the chassis of the vehicle. These consist of a hollow sleeve of elastic material, which is housed inside a metallic sleeve, or a screw clamp, with the connection to the chassis by means of screws.
This type of bushing is used to attach components such as the track control arms, tie rods, stabiliser rods, etc. to the frame in order to absorb the movements and vibrations of the suspension so that these are not transmitted to the chassis.
The steering shaft is a jointed metal bar that joins the steering box mechanism on one end and the steering wheel on the other end.
In many cases, it is possible to adjust the steering wheel position to the height and length that the driver wants. The mechanism can be locked in the desired position by means of a lever next to it on the dashboard.
The steering shaft joints generally use cardan joints, as well as the commonly used telescopic spindles in the final section of the steering shaft. These allow the modification of the angles and the necessary interconnections between the steering wheel and the steering box. These joints are also designed for passive safety features and allow programmed deformation for accident scenarios with the intention of moving the steering wheel away from the driving position in case of a frontal crash.
The most common programmed deformation systems are:
  • Retractable steering shaft with jointed axles
    In the case of a strong frontal impact, the shaft with jointed axles is collapsible thanks to the joints which connect each section, in many cases avoiding the injuries that the displacement of the steering wheel toward the vehicle driver could cause.
  • Retractable steering shaft with sliding axles
    In this type of steering shaft, when a frontal impact occurs, the lower axle of the steering shaft slides under the upper axle of the steering shaft, which, to a large extent, avoids the steering wheel being pushed towards the chest of the driver.
  • Retractable steering shaft connected by wire mesh
    In this model the two sections of the steering axle are joined by a connection consisting of a cylinder of compressible wire mesh. In case of frontal impact, the wire mesh cylinder compresses, absorbing the movement of the lower axle and preventing the steering wheel from moving towards the driver.
In rack systems, which are most commonly used systems in the automotive industry, at the ends of the steering box there are steering rack gaiters, also known as steering boots or bellows, which prevent the entry of dirt or water into the steering mechanism, while preserving the integrity of the components and the lubrication – usually grease in non-assisted power steering – because of their sealing function.
When the steering mechanism is operated, the gaiters length increases and decreases, which causes a variation in the internal volume of air that it contains. For this reason, the system must have a means of allowing the entry and exit of this volume of air. Two methods are usually employed:
  • By means of a small hole on the bellows.
  • By means of the connection between the chambers formed by the two bellows, so that the reduction of pressure in one of them compensates for the increase in the other by passing the air through the connecting hose. The hose can be externally mounted on the bellows, or internally connected through the steering box.
The steering knuckles are the connection between the steering system components, the suspension components, and the steered wheels of the vehicle. The bearing bushing that is connected directly to the wheel is located inside the steering knuckle, allowing it to rotate freely with respect to the steering knuckle.
They are made in one piece of steel or alloys and are highly resistant. The design is determined by the joints of the structure and all the components that are involved in the stability and manoeuvrability of the vehicle, with particular attention paid to the connection of the tie rods, so that it meets the Ackermann principle.
In vehicles that use MacPherson suspension, these have the purpose of attaching the chassis to the steering knuckle-wheel set-up, which transmits the entire weight of the vehicle. Since the wheels have to be able to rotate from one side to the other, the use of some type of joint between the chassis and strut connected to steering knuckle attachment is required. This is the purpose of the Top strut bearings.
This type of bearing is installed on the upper part of the strut piston rod, so that when the wheels move from one side to the other, they allow full rotation of the strut with respect to its anchor on the chassis.
The bearing is part of the upper mounting kit (MKs), along with a strut rubber bushing that absorbs ground vibrations at the same time that it ensures that the wheels have the best contact with the ground.
This type of ball joint is attached to the rack steering to join the ends of the rack with the steering arms. In this manner they become the perfect complement to the ball joints attached to the steering knuckle, allowing the vehicle wheels all types of upward and downward movement.
They are called “axial” because they are mounted in the same direction as the steering rack rod, as if they were an extension of it.
These are the connecting component between the steering knuckles and the track control arms or tie rods that are attached to the chassis. They absorb the movements and vibrations that are produced between them when the wheels move upwards or downwards due to the uneven ground. These may be integrated into the track control arms or attached to them by means of screwed joints.
The composition is similar to the steering ball joints but more robust, due to the load they bear, which the shock absorbers put on them due to the weight of the chassis.
According to the position that the suspension ball joints have with respect to the applied load (chassis weight), these can be classified as follows:
Non load carying ball joints. These are placed in such a way that never support the weight of the vehicle.
Load carrying ball joints. They work in compression and support the weight of the chassis.
Unloaded ball joints. They work in a radial direction with their only purpose being the attachment of the steering knuckle to the chassis.
On a vehicle a anti-roll bar also called as sway bar or stabilizer bar, prevents the car body from leaning too much and keeps the vehicle stable when driving in turns. A sway bar is connected via rubber bushings to the car body or frame in the middle (see anti-roll bar). Outer ends of the anti-roll bar are connected to the parts of the vehicle suspension that holds the wheel (struts or control arms). The part that connects the outer ends of the anti-roll bar to the suspension component is called a sway bar link, stabilizer link or anti-roll bar link. In most cars a sway bar link has two small ball joints at each end. Over time, the sway bar link ball joints wear out. The first sign of a worn out sway bar link is a knocking noise from the suspension when driving slow over road bumps.
The steering wheel is the component that the driver operates, and its design depends on the manufacturer of the vehicle. It consists of a metal ring covered with a foam whose texture and thickness make it comfortable and pleasant to use, and also allows the driver to get a good grip, avoiding slipping while driving.
In the case of sports vehicles, the foam may be covered in leather to improve the texture. On the other hand, in some luxury vehicles the metal ring is directly covered with wood.
The steering wheel should allow a clear view of the dashboard, located behind it, from the driver’s normal position.
Nowadays, various control components and systems, such as the horn, airbag (clearly identified with the stamped “airbag” or “SRS” symbol), sound system controls, cruise control, etc., are located on the steering wheel. The size is determined by the manufacturer depending on the available space and effort that the driver must exert to operate the mechanism: the bigger the diameter the less effort. At is centre, it connects to the steering shaft by means of a worm-gear through a conical grooved hole that makes it possible to set its position.